Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface. The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects may be used. In art the term describes both the act and the result, which is called a painting.
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil, commonly, especially in early modern Europe, linseed. Often an oil such as linseed was boiled with a resin such as pine resin. These oils confer various properties to the oil paint, such as less yellowing or different drying times. Certain differences are also visible in the sheen of the paints depending on the oil. Painters often use different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired. The paints themselves also develop a particular consistency depending on the medium.
Oil paint gained popularity in the 15th century and eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known.
Acrylic paint is fast-drying paint containing pigment suspended in an acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints can be diluted with water, but become water-resistant when dry. Depending on how much the paint is diluted (with water) or modified with acrylic gels, media, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolor or oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other media.
Watercolor is the medium in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water soluble vehicle.
Gouache is a type of paint consisting of pigment suspended in water. Gouache differs from watercolor in that the particles are larger, the ratio of pigment to water is much higher, and an additional, inert, white pigment such as chalk is also present. Like all watermedia, it is diluted with water. This makes gouache heavier and more opaque, with greater reflective qualities.
Encaustic painting, also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added. The liquid/paste is then applied to a surface—usually prepared wood, though canvas and other materials are often used. The simplest encaustic mixture can be made from adding pigments to beeswax, but there are several other recipes that can be used — some containing other types of waxes, resins, and oils or other ingredients. Pure, powdered pigments can be purchased and used, though some mixtures use oil paints or other forms of pigment.
Drawing is a visual art that makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium. Common instruments include graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoals, chalk, pastels, markers, stylus, or various metals like silverpoint. An artist who practices or works in drawing may be referred to as a draftsman or draughtsman.
A small amount of material is released onto the two dimensional medium which leaves a visible mark—the process is similar to that of painting. The most common support for drawing is paper, although other materials are used.
Pencil is an art medium usually constructed of a narrow, solid pigment core inside a protective casing. The case prevents the core from breaking, and also from marking the user's hand during use.
Graphite pencils are the most common types of pencils. They are made of a mixture of clay and graphite and their darkness varies from light grey to black. Their composition allows for the smoothest strokes.
Charcoal pencils are made of charcoal and provide fuller blacks than graphite pencils, but tend to smudge easily and are more abrasive than graphite. Sepia-toned and white pencils are also available for duotone techniques.
Carbon pencils generally are made of a mixture of clay and lamp black (a black pigment named after the traditional process of collecting soot from oil lamps), but are sometimes blended with charcoal or graphite depending on the darkness and manufacturer. They produce a fuller black than graphite pencils, but are smoother than charcoal.
Colored pencils have wax-like cores with pigment and other fillers. Multiple colors are often blended together. The versatility of a set of colored pencils can be determined by the number of unique colors it contains.
Grease pencils write on virtually any surface (including glass, plastic, metal and photographs). The most commonly found grease pencils are encased in paper, but they can also be encased in wood.
Watercolor pencils are designed for use with watercolor techniques. The pencils can be used by themselves for sharp, bold lines. Strokes made by the pencil can also be saturated with water and spread with brushes.
Pen is a long, thin, rounded device used to apply ink to a surface for the purpose of writing or drawing, usually paper.
Marker pen, marking pen, felt-tip pen, or marker, is a pen which has its own ink-source, and usually a tip made of a porous material, such as felt or nylon.
Crayon is a stick of colored wax, charcoal, chalk, or other materials used for writing, coloring, and drawing. A crayon made of oiled chalk is called an oil pastel; when made of pigment with a dry binder, it is simply a pastel. Oil pastels are a popular medium for color artwork. A grease pencil or china marker is made of colored hardened grease and is useful for marking on hard, glossy surfaces such as porcelain or glass.
Pastel is an art medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder. The pigments used in pastels are the same as those used to produce all colored art media, including oil paints; the binder is of a neutral hue and low saturation. The color effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments than that of any other process.
Charcoal drawings are created using implements made from either burnt sticks (referred to a vine charcoal), usually willow or linden, or a powder bound with gum arabic (referred to as compressed charcoal). Charcoal itself if the residue resulting from a slow burning of organic matter.